how to display large responses from the request module nicely?

2021.10.26 02:09 cromatkastar how to display large responses from the request module nicely?

currently i use idel to run my code. sometimes i save a response such as k=requests.get(ebay.com)
but due to the number of characters in the page source, its very long
then when i try to print(k) my python program stalls and the computer fan starts spinning really fast and then after a while it prints all the text. however idel gets laggy and i cant even try to scroll up because its so slow. im forced to close the window.
is there a way to display this nicely?
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2021.10.26 02:09 UnixCorsair Peeling back

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2021.10.26 02:09 Bot_Highlights 1v3 with the wingman | /u/deadshotvz

1v3 with the wingman | deadshotvz submitted by Bot_Highlights to ApexVideos [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 RealROCPatriotLung A good article translated on Shanghai Massacre, and the effects of the KMT-CPC fallout from the First United Front. 論412政變的文章,以及國共分裂造就的歷史政治變化 This article is very impartial and insightful. Provides several perspectives from all viewpoints. It is google translate so might be funny.

https://wenku.baidu.com/view/6c9d7fefaf45b307e97197c6.html
Why Chiang Kai-shek purged the party, we still have to start with the first cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party. Sun Yat-sen spent most of his life for revolution, but he still failed. He finally understood a truth, that is, if you don't have your own army, you cannot establish a government according to your own plan. To put it bluntly, Sun Yat-sen finally realized that "government comes out of the barrel of a gun."
However, it costs money to form an army. Sun Yat-sen himself has no strong base (especially after Chen Jiongming's mutiny), what should he do?
At this time, it happened that the Soviets started activities in China. Japan's operations in North Korea and Northeast China over the years have made the Soviet Union very uneasy. The Soviet Union hoped to gather the power of Wu Peifu and Sun Yat-sen to suppress Zhang Zuolin and others who were backed by Japan.
Later, the Soviet Union sought out these two people because, first, the Soviet Union wanted to support a nationalist revolutionary force. When this power rises, other imperialist powers may be expelled. The revolutionary force of Chinese nationalism was represented by Sun Yat-sen at the time. And secondly, the Soviet Union also needs to increase the possibility of success, so it hopes that the pro-Russian warlord will unite with Sun Yat-sen.
Of course, in the end Wu Peifu and Sun Yat-sen fell out for various reasons. After weighing the benefits, the Soviet Union chose to support Sun Yat-sen.
At this time, things were still a bit awkward. The cooperation between the Soviet Union and Sun Yat-sen began in 1922. And we all know what happened in 1921. The CCP, at the time, was too weak. It is impossible to support the CCP to achieve the goals requested by the Soviet Union. Therefore, the Soviet Union still has to support the Kuomintang.
From the perspective of the Kuomintang, if the CCP develops well one day, will the Soviet Union turn to support the CCP and abandon the Kuomintang? From this perspective, we can understand why the Kuomintang was not a communist party but applied to become a member of the Communist International.
From the perspective of the Soviet Union, although they appreciate Sun Yat-sen's ideology, fundamentally speaking, it is clear that the USSR has more appetite for the CPC than the KMT. But the CCP is too weak. No support is ideologically unreasonable. Support, how can we explain it on the side of the Kuomintang? After all, these are two parties whose political views are not so unified.
Therefore, the representatives of the Soviet Union proposed simply to merge the two parties, and to support the Kuomintang is to support the CCP. However, Sun Yat-sen considered that he has many people and the CCP has few people. After the merger, he will gradually integrate the CCP into KMT and be completely unified, so that there will be no more worries about the Soviet Union giving up itself. And at this time Sun Yat-sen was at the lowest point (at least one of the lowest points) of his entire career, so he didn't want to risk losing the favor of the Soviet Union, so he was unwilling to reject the Soviet proposal. Although the CCP has had close cooperation and ties with the Kuomintang from the very beginning, and even directly sided with Sun Yat-sen after Chen Jiongming’s mutiny (for this reason, the CPC veteran Chen Gongbo was expelled), the political views of the two parties were different and they were unwilling to merge into the Kuomintang. However, since the CCP’s funding was mainly provided by the Comintern at that time, under the pressure of the Comintern, the CCP finally agreed.
This cooperation has had a fatal problem from the beginning-the ideas of the Soviet Union and the Communist International are not completely overlapped.
On the one hand, supporting the Kuomintang is the need of the Soviet Union’s national interests, but on the other hand, supporting the CCP is the direction of the Communist International’s ideology. When the two came together, they formed the conflicting policies of the Soviet Union/Communist International on China at the time. On the one hand, the Soviet Union needs to resolutely support the Kuomintang. On the other hand, the Communist International hopes that the CCP will continue to follow the populist line that many Kuomintang people resent, and continue to grow and develop. In other words, the Kuomintang, which is strongly supported by the Soviet Union/Communist International, will become increasingly suspicious and hostile to the Soviet Union, the Communist International, and even the CCP because of its own ideology.
At the beginning of 1923, when the cooperation between the two parties began, there were often discrepancies in speech due to the different ideologies of the two parties. This also led to the departure of Marin, the representative of the Communist International.
However, after Borodin, the dual representative of the Communist International and the Soviet Union, arrived, he had an in-depth conversation with Sun Yat-sen on the form of the Kuomintang. Borodin has first-hand experience of the Russian Revolution. Sun Yat-sen realized from this that the building of the party played a vital role in the success of the revolution.
Therefore, Sun Yat-sen took the initiative to introduce the Communist Party into the National Government. Since then, members of the Chinese Communist Party have gradually occupied a large number of high-level positions in the National Government, and they also have their own strength in the National Revolutionary Army. On the other hand, Borodin also suppressed the CCP’s speech, requiring that party members’ public political opinions need to be discussed by the Party Central Committee to avoid conflicts with the Kuomintang.
With these efforts, cooperation between the two parties is gradually unfolding.
At this time, some people are already dissatisfied.
Deng Zeru, the interim central executive member of the Kuomintang, led the letter to Sun Yat-sen, referring to Pauline’s frequent meetings with Chen Duxiu and other communists to discuss the Kuomintang’s platform and policies. The Communist Party, which has been agreed upon, and which is "supplied by the Soviet Russian government", is "using the body of the Kuomintang to infuse the soul of the Communist Party."
Of course Sun Yat-sen was unmoved. Because he is the final one. And Sun Yat-sen's personal prestige makes no one can accuse him of becoming the puppet of the Communist Party. However, the intention of some high-level Kuomintang leaders to seek to purge the party was revealed at this time. That is to say, the purge party was not masterminded by Chiang Kai-shek. This issue was already quite acute in the early stage of cooperation between the KMT and the CCP.
As far as Sun Yat-sen is concerned, of course he will also be dissatisfied with the too close relationship between the Soviet Union and the CCP. His policy is still to integrate the CCP and become part of the Kuomintang. In this way, the Soviet Union could only become its closest partner. Of course, Sun Yat-sen also realized that this approach is very difficult. But as far as he is concerned, even if this measure fails, he can always kickout the Communist Party. Moreover, while Sun Yat-sen introduced the CCP to the Nationalist Government and the KMT Central Committee, he also introduced people who were skeptical of the CCP to the top as a balance.
Thanks to Sun Yat-sen's support, the CCP developed very smoothly within the Kuomintang. Since the CCP followed the ideology of the Communist International at that time, it was taking the grassroots approach, so the CCP was very active in local and grassroots activities. In contrast, the Kuomintang is less concerned about local and grassroots activities. CCP members hold major leadership and organizational work in a large number of local KMT headquarters. Since the northern provinces are not within the scope of the Southern Nationalist Government's activities, the local KMT headquarters are often initiated by the CCP alone. Therefore, it is conceivable that the ideology of the KMT members promoted in many local KMT Party headquarters is similar to that of the CCP.
However, the CCP does not feel that being involved in the KMT affairs is a good thing. On the one hand, it is too much to cause suspicion, and on the other hand, it is thankless. Many people run around for the KMT affairs all day long, and as a result, their own affairs are delayed.
According to the CCP’s own internal documents, from 1923 to mid-1924, the CCP’s membership hardly increased. This phenomenon is gratifying to the Soviet personnel, while the Communist International thinks it is horrendous.
Sun Yat-sen held the view of a political party that party members should unconditionally obey the party leader. A large number of his practices are also carried out in accordance with this guideline, or hypothesis. In general, if Sun Yat-sen can restrain his survival, this layout may not have such a particularly serious problem. He may have controlled the situation relatively well.
But things were bad, Sun Yat-sen passed away.
Before Sun Yat-sen's death, in June 1924, there was already a storm of impeachment against the Communist Party. This time the storm was suppressed by Sun Yat-sen. Sun Yat-sen also took advantage of the reorganization to hold the power of the Kuomintang Central Committee in the hands of those who supported his policy of "Ally with Russia and the Communist Party".
However, this cannot change the division within the Kuomintang. Those who resolutely demand the purge of Communist Party and those who support Russia and the Communist Party will become respectively rightists and leftists.
When the left and the right are arguing over these issues. The CCP is not idle either.
Even the leftist who were led by Sun Yat-sen is still considering strengthening army building and government building, plotting the Northern Expedition, and attacking the Beiyang government. The CCP gradually felt that the many measures taken by the Southern National Government became more and more indistinguishable from the warlords. For example, the KMT government used force to suppress workers' strikes. This is in stark contrast to the CCP’s ideology.
During the Guangzhou Merchant Uprising, the CCP and the Kuomintang stood together and suppressed the armed forces of the Merchant Group supported by Hong Kong and the British. This temporarily eases the contradiction between the two sides. But Beiyang ROC President Cao Kun resigned, and Feng Yuxiang called and asked Sun Yat-sen, Duan Qirui, and Zhang Zuolin to come to Beijing to form a coalition government. The Kuomintang was quite moved by this.
Since Sun Yat-sen is going to get involved with the warlord they opposed before, then one can imagine what the Chinese Communist Party thinks at this time. In addition, the CCP has repeatedly criticized the policies of the Kuomintang in the past, and the two sides have always disliked each other.
Sun Yat-sen passed away at the crucial point where the contradictions were most intensified. When Sun Yat-sen was still alive, his prestige alone can overwhelm both sides. But as soon as he died, the contradiction intensified. Then entered the stage of serious contradictions such as sorting out the party affairs case, and then the purging of party came into being.
But is this really the whole reason for 412? of course not.
Even if the Communist Party is tolerated or divided, the purging of Party has profound contradictions. The Kuomintang can still expel CCP members according to Sun Yat-sen's morals. Why should it be massacred? And why do you want to slaughter the Kuomintang's own party members?
There are two reasons for this: society and the form of war.
First of all, as far as Chinese society was concerned at that time, capitalists and landlords had not yet fallen into the desperate situation of the late Republic of China, so the upper class generally feared communism. And some of the CCP’s early actions are too extreme (for example, fighting for the rights of workers has reached a point where the enterprise cannot continue to operate), and it does not help that society did not accept it. And because the CCP’s political thinking was not mature and smooth, it intensified its contradictions with the traditional Chinese upper class and the Kuomintang.
Secondly, what the Kuomintang pursues is the elimination of warlords by Military force. What the CCP pursues is to mobilize the people at the bottom and then seize power across the country. In the initial policy of the CCP, the military offensive is a warlord movement, and it is not worth promoting. The peasant movement and the labor movement initiated by the CCP, no matter in whose territory they are located, deal a severe blow to the local economic order and the existing social order. The Kuomintang originally controlled Guangdong, so only occasionally suppressed it. The CCP has caused more trouble to the enemy Beiyang warlords. However, as the National Revolutionary Army gained more territory and more and more areas fell under the control of the Southern Nationalist Government, the CCP's grassroot movement caused more and more troubles to the Kuomintang.
For a political party seeking to conquer the country by force, stability in the home front is extremely critical. A large amount of military expenditure needs to be raised from industry and commerce. If the order of industry and commerce is frequently disrupted, then the ultimate goal it pursues is also a major blow.
Under such circumstances, it is far from enough to simply purge the Communist Party from the Kuomintang. Even if the government’s policies are completely unaffected by the CCP, the CCP will still continue the peasant movement and the labor movement, and continue to disrupt the homefront order. not only. Since the CCP has taken the lead in the construction of the KMT's grassroots organizations, the KMT's grassroots members often also support the peasant movement and the labor movement. For the Kuomintang, these people must also be purged-even if they are not members of the CCP at all.
Therefore, after the initial success of the Northern Expedition, the urgency for the Kuomintang to eliminate the CCP and its fellow Chinese people has become more and more urgent. The change in Chiang Kai-shek's views also appeared under these conditions.
At first, Chiang Kai-shek admired the Soviet doctrine very much. But he was very disgusted with the intentions of the Soviet Union, but believed that for the Nationalist Government to succeed, it had to establish a rigorous organizational structure like the Soviet Union (from the later history, this has always been the Kuomintang’s shortcoming).
At that time, the members of the Kuomintang who were more successful in managing party affairs were basically all Communists.
Even after the Zhongshan ship incident and the collation of party affairs, Chiang Kai-shek still hoped to keep the Communist Party in the army. This is because the Communist Party is much better than the Kuomintang in terms of military political work and strengthening the organization of the military.
Soon after Sun Yat-sen's death, whether out of ideals or desire for power, Chiang Kai-shek gave up his original idea that as a soldier should not be in political power, he turned to use military to pursue political power. For the CCP, controlling power as a soldier is a typical warlord behavior. Therefore, the CCP constantly criticized Jiang and stood on the opposite side of Jiang in the struggle for power.
Since then, Jiang has completely turned from his past appreciation of the CCP to his hatred of the CCP.
So how did Jiang Zhongzheng converge with the Kuomintang and the anti-Communist thoughts of the upper class?
After all, the upper class is a minority, and of course it is impossible to resist the lower class, which constitutes the majority of the population, in the labor and peasant movement. Therefore, in order for the upper class to fight against the workers' and peasants' movement, they must resort to find assistance of state violence. At that time, in most of the newly occupied areas, the Northern Expedition Army could be used. Many upper-class people began to contact the officers of the Northern Expeditionary Army and used their troops to help suppress them.
Jiang Zhongzheng was the commander-in-chief of the Northern Expedition. When the Northern Expedition Army captured Shanghai, the Jiangsu-Zhejiang Financial Group sent representatives to intervene with Jiang Fu, hoping that the Northern Expedition Army could protect the order of Shanghai at the cost of providing a large amount of military expenditure. Jiang Zhongzheng agreed.
At this time, for Chiang Kai-shek, the situation was like this:

  1. When the CCP its own political enemy, the left-wing Kuomintang who sympathized with the CCP was also a political enemy.
  2. The upper class generally feared the worker-peasant movement and were willing to pay military expenses to suppress it.
  3. The CCP and the Workers' and Peasants Movement have formed resistance to the National Government's continued Northern Expedition.
  4. In fact, foreign capital has also begun to be dissatisfied with the workers' and peasants' movement, and the anti-communism can happen to improve relations with foreign countries.
By this time, Chiang Kai-shek's choice was very simple. It can be said that it is an inevitable option for Chiang Kai-shek to regard the CCP as an enemy and completely eliminate it physically.
Once Chiang Kai-shek opened the door to hell, the Kuomintang right-wing forces in other places, even if they were not the same boat as Chiang Kai-shek, would start mass killings by this opportunity. Most people in the upper class would only applaud this.
Then the last question is, why did some former Kuomintang leftists, such as Wang Jingwei and his army, also join the massacre?
This problem also comes down to the structure of the National Revolutionary Army.
The National Revolutionary Army is an old-style army. In this kind of army, soldiers are loyal their own officers instead of the supreme civil administration.
Most of the officers of the National Revolutionary Army were from capitalists or landlord families. Therefore, the hatred of the upper class towards the CCP and the worker-peasant movement undoubtedly affected the National Revolutionary Army. Even the left-wing army of the Kuomintang at that time was not immune. In particular, where the army is located the upper classes has relentlessly paid the officers a fortune in exchange for the suppression of the workers and peasants. And because the officers directly control the army, it is difficult for the civil administration to severely punish officers (the officers can always take the army to take refuge in other warlords). This resulted in even the left-wing army of the Kuomintang happily participating in the purge party massacre.
In those days, political factions without an army lacked ultimate influence. When the attitude of one's own army is no longer under control, it is conceivable what kind of changes the relevant politicians will have.The Kuomintang, which has resolutely maintained its left-wing stance, also exists, but since then it has not had much political influence anymore.
412 caused a lot of consequences.
First, the Nationalist Government resolved an important internal problem. The Northern Expedition continued. After the National Revolutionary Army successfully invaded Jinan, in order to protect its own interests in China, Japan had to act personally to curb the gains of the National Revolutionary Army. This is the Jinan Incident in May 1928. Because the Beiyang government had basically collapsed, Japan wanted to intervene more directly in China, but it was met with fierce resistance from the Beiyang warlords. In June 1928, Zhang Zuolin was bombed to death by the Japanese. At the end of 1928, the Northeast changed its flag. China has achieved reunification in name.
Due to the advantages of the Nationalist Government, countries have begun to recognize the Nationalist Government as the dominant force in China. From 1927 to 1928, European and American countries signed tariff treaties with the Nationalist Government. In exchange, the Nationalist Government respected the interests of these countries in China. So, who was the last major capitalist country to sign a tariff treaty with the National Government? Of course, it was Japan (1930), which influenced and supported the Beiyang government.
Japan lost a lot of profits in the process, and its strategy of using puppets to exert pressure on China failed completely. This stimulated the subsequent invasion of China.
Returning to the Kuomintang side, they is still far from being unified within it. After the issue of division/tolerance was resolved, the naked power struggle took the lead. The Central Plains war broke out.
Since 412 killed all its own bottom-level organizations and killed all the Kuomintang forces that followed the grassroots approach, the Kuomintang has never been able to establish a strong grassroots organization ever since. This caused the Kuomintang to lose its ability to control the grassroots, which in turn led to difficulties for the Kuomintang government on a series of issues such as government revenue, government reform, and army building. It also indirectly led to the nationalist government's final defeat in the civil war.
As for the CCP, after this, many of its members no longer trusted the Soviet doctrine. Although the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in Shanghai, which is more compliant with the Communist International, still has great influence, the nativist faction of the Communist Party of China, represented by Mao Zedong, has gradually risen. They began to explore their own path of struggle. After the Soviet faction that called for "armed defense of the Soviet" was defeated in the fifth encirclement campaign, the nativist faction finally became the dominant force of the CCP. Without this change, the CCP will obviously not be able to win in the end. It is precisely because of this process that the CCP has transformed from merely the Chinese branch of the Communist International to a nativist nationalist party. It is precisely for this reason that after 1949, the CCP will not follow suit with the Soviet Union's policies and has never joined the USSR's Economic Mutual Association. Therefore, the final collapse of the Soviet Union did not cause a serious economic blow to China [Mainland]. Of course, this resolute and independent attitude also led to tensions between China [Mainland] and the Soviet Union.

國民黨為什麼要清黨,還是要從第一次國共合作開始講起。孫中山當年搞了大半輩子,還是失敗來失敗去。他終於明白一個道理,那就是滅有自己的軍隊,那按照自己規劃的政府是建立不起來的。這說白了就是,孫中山萬年終於意識到了“槍桿子裡面出政權”。
然而,組建軍隊是要錢的。孫中山自己沒有地盤(尤其是陳炯明兵變以後),怎麼辦呢?
這個時候,恰好蘇聯人開始在中國活動了。日本多年來在朝鮮和東北的經營,讓蘇聯非常不安。蘇聯希望集結吳佩孚和孫中山的力量來壓制日本支持的張作霖等人。
之後以蘇聯要找這兩個人,是因為,第一,蘇聯希望支持一個民族主義的革命力量。這個勢力崛起,別的列強的勢力就可能被逐出。中國民族主義的革命力量,在當時是以孫中山為代表的。而第二,蘇聯也需要增大成功的可能,所以希望親俄的軍閥與孫中山聯合起來。
當然,最後吳佩孚和孫中山因為種種原因鬧翻了。
蘇聯經過權衡,還是選擇了支持孫中山。
這時候,事情還是有些尷尬。蘇聯與孫中山的合作,起於1922年。而我們都知道1921年發生了一件什麼事情。中共,在當時來說,實在太過弱小。支持中共不可能達到蘇聯所求的目標。所以蘇聯還是要支持國民黨。
從國民黨的角度講,如果有一天中共發展得不錯,蘇聯會不會轉而支持中共,而放棄國民黨呢?從這個角度講,就能夠理解後來為什麼國民黨並非一個共產主義政黨卻要申請成為共產國際的成員了。
從蘇聯的角度講,雖然他們欣賞孫中山的意識形態,但就根本而言,顯然中共比國民黨更對自己的胃口。但是中共太弱小了。不支持,從意識形態上說不過去。支持,在國民黨一邊又該如何解釋呢?畢竟這是兩個政見不那麼統一的黨派。
所以蘇聯代表提出乾脆兩黨合併,支持國民黨就是支持中共。而孫中山則考慮,自己人多,中共人少,合併以後,逐步把中共融入自己,徹底合一,這樣就不再有蘇聯放棄自己的隱憂了。而且此時孫中山正處於整個事業的最低點(至少是最低點之一),所以他也不想冒險失去蘇聯的青睞,因此不願意否決蘇聯方面的提議。中共雖然從一開始就和國民黨有著密切的合作和聯繫,甚至在陳炯明兵變後直接站在孫中山一邊(為此不惜開除了元老陳公博),但兩黨政見畢竟不同,並不願意併入國民黨。不過由於當時中共的經費主要由共產國際提供,所以在共產國際的壓力下,中共最終還是同意了。
這個合作從一開始就有著致命的問題—蘇聯和共產國際的想法並不是完全的重合。
一方面,支持國民黨是蘇聯國家利益的需要,但另一方面,支持中共則是共產國際意識形態的方向。當這兩者匯集在一起的時候,就形成了當時蘇聯/共產國際在中國方面自相矛盾的政策。一方面蘇聯需要堅決支持國民黨,另一方面共產國際卻希望之後中共繼續走很多國民黨人反感的底層民粹路線,不斷發展壯大。也就是說,蘇聯/共產國際下大力氣支持的國民黨,卻會因為其自身的意識形態而與蘇聯,共產國際,乃至中共越來越猜忌,敵對。
1923 年初,兩黨合作一開始,由於兩方意識形態迥異導致在言論上常有不合。這也導致了共產國際代表馬林的離職。
但是,共產國際與蘇聯的雙重代表鮑羅廷到達以後,與孫中山就國民黨的形式進行了深入的交談。鮑羅廷對俄國革命有著一手的經驗。孫中山從中意識到,黨的建設,對於革命的成功,有著至關重要的作用。
因此,孫中山主動把共產黨引入到了國民政府中來。從此以後,中共成員在國民政府中就逐步佔據了大量的高級職務,而且在國民革命軍中也有自己的力量。另一方面,鮑羅廷對中共的言論也進行了壓制,要求黨員的公開政論需要經過黨中央討論才能發出,從而避免與國民黨有言論上的衝突。
在這些努力下,兩黨合作逐步展開。
這個時候,其實已經有人不滿了。
國民黨臨時中央執行委員鄧澤如領銜上書孫中山,指保羅廷時常與陳獨秀等共產黨人集會,討論國民黨的政綱,政策,與此似可見“俄人替我黨訂定之政綱政策,全為陳獨秀之共產黨所議定”,“為蘇俄政府所給養”之共產黨,正在“借國民黨之軀殼,注入共產黨之靈魂”
孫中山當然不為所動。因為他才是最終拍板的人。而孫中山的個人威望,也使得沒有誰能指責他成為了共黨魁儡。但是,部分國民黨高層尋求清黨的意圖早就在此時顯露了出來,也就是說,清黨並不是蔣介石一拍腦想出來的,這個問題在國共合作初期就已經相當尖銳。
就孫中山而言,他當然也會對蘇聯與中共過於密切的關係感到不滿。他的方針仍然是把中共融合進來,成為國民黨的一部分。這樣蘇聯自然只能與自己成為最親密的夥伴了。當然,孫中山也意識到,這種作法是非常困難的。但是就他個人而言,即便這個舉措失敗了,他也總能把共產黨通通開除出去。而且,孫中山在吧中共引入到國府和國民黨中央來的同時,也把對中共抱有懷疑態度的人引入到高層作為反制。
由於孫中山的支持,中共在國民黨內部發展非常順利。由於中共當時按照共產國際的意識形態走的是底層路線,所以中共在地方,基層的活動非常活躍。相比之下,國民黨對地方,基層活動就顯得不那麼上心。中共黨員在大量的國民黨地方黨部擔任主要領導和組織工作。北方各省,由於不是南方國民政府的活動範圍,國民黨的地方黨部更是往往由中共一手發起。以因此可想而知,在很多國民黨地方黨部中,提拔的國民黨黨員,其意識形態也與中共類似。
然而,中共也並不覺得涉入國民黨黨務是件好事,一方面全力太大引起猜疑,另一方面吃力不討好,很多人成天為國民黨黨務奔波,結果自己的事情都耽誤了。
按照中共自己的內部文件,在1923年到1924年中,中共黨員本身幾乎沒有增加。這種現象,蘇聯人員覺得是可喜的,而共產國際覺得這簡直是瞎整。
孫中山對於一個政黨抱有這樣一種看法,即,黨徒應無條件服從黨首。他大量的作法也是按照這一方針,或者說假設來進行的。總的來說,如果孫中山能夠抑制活下去,這種佈局未必有這麼特別嚴重的問題,他可能比較好地控制住局面了。
但是事情就壞在,孫中山逝世了。
孫中山逝世以前,1924年6月,就已經爆發一次彈劾共黨的風暴。這一次的風暴被孫中山一手壓制下去。孫中山還利用改組,而把國民黨中央的權利握在了支持自己“聯俄容共”方針的人手中。
然而這不能改變國民黨內部的分裂。堅決要求清共的,和支持聯俄容共的,就變成右派和左派。
在左右派因為這些問題而爭執的時候。中共也沒閒著。
即便是孫中山所執掌的左派,也仍然在考慮加強軍隊建設和政府建設,圖謀北伐,進攻北洋政府。而中共則逐漸覺得,南方國民政府的諸多舉措,越來越和軍閥沒有區別了。比方說,國府曾武力鎮壓工人罷工,這是與中共的意識形態截然對立的。
廣州商團事件時,中共與國民黨站在一起,鎮壓了港英支持的商團武裝。這暫時緩和兩邊的矛盾。但是曹錕下野,而馮玉祥致電,請孫中山,段祺瑞,張作霖一起到北京組建聯合政府。國民黨方面對此頗為心動。
既然孫中山要和之前他們反對的軍閥攪到一起去,那麼可想而知,中共這時候是什麼想法了。加上之前中共對國民黨的政策屢有非議,兩邊本來就互相看不順眼。
就在矛盾最激化的檔口,孫中山去世了。
孫中山在世的時候,他一個人的威望就可以壓服兩邊。但是他一去世,矛盾立刻激化。
隨後進入整理黨務案等等嚴峻的矛盾階段,進而產生清黨。
但是這真的是412的全部原因麼?
當然不是。
即便就容共還是分共,清黨有著深刻的矛盾。國民黨仍然可以按照孫中山與拿來的構想,把中共黨員開除即可,為什麼要屠殺呢?而且為什麼要屠殺國民黨自己的黨員呢?
這有社會和戰爭形式兩方面的原因。
首先,就當時的中國社會來說,資本家和地主還沒有陷入到民國後期的絕望處境,因此上層社會普遍對共產主義感到恐懼。而中共早起一些做法過於極端(比如為工人爭取權益達到了讓企業無法經營下去的地步),也無助於社會對其的接受。而由於中共當年政治思想不夠成熟,圓滑,更是激化了與中國傳統上層社會以及國民黨的矛盾。
其次,國民黨所追求的是武力消滅軍閥。而中共所追求的是發動底層民眾,然後搞全國的奪權。在中共初始的方針裡,軍事進攻,是軍閥式的運動,是不值得提倡的。中共搞的農民運動和工人運動,無論在誰的領地裡,對當地的經濟秩序,既有的社會秩序都是嚴重打擊。本來國民黨之控制廣東一地,偶爾壓制一下即可。中共給敵人製造的麻煩更大。但是隨著國民革命軍攻城略地,越來越多的地區落入到南方國民政府的控制之中,那麼中共的底層運動給國民黨所帶來的麻煩也就越來越大了。
對於一個追求武力征服全國的政黨來說,後方的穩定是極為關鍵的。大量的軍費都需要從工商業中籌集,如果工商業秩序頻繁被打亂,那麼對其追求的終極目的也是一個重大的打擊。
在這種情況下,僅僅吧共產黨從國民黨中清除,是遠遠不夠的。即便國府的政策完全不受中共影響,中共仍然會繼續農民運動和工人運動,繼續打亂後方的秩序。不但如此。由於中共在構建國民黨基層組織的工作中佔據主導,國民黨基層黨員往往也支持農民運動和工人運動。對於國民黨來說,就必須要把這些人也清理掉—即便他們根本就不是中共黨員。
因此,在北伐獲得階段性成功後,對於國民黨來說,消滅中共及本黨內的中共同情者的緊迫性就越來越高了。而蔣介石的觀點轉變也是在這種條件下出現的。
蔣介石一開始對蘇聯的路線非常欣賞。他對於蘇聯的意圖非常反感,但是認為國民政府要成功,就必須要建立如蘇聯一樣嚴密的組織結構(從後來的歷史看,這一直是國民黨的短板)。
在當時,國民黨內做黨務比較成功的,基本都是共產黨人。
即便是中山艦事件和整理黨務案之後,蔣介石仍然希望在軍隊中保留共產黨。這是因為共產黨在軍隊政治工作和增強軍隊組織性方面比國民黨人強的太多了。
在孫中山去世後不久,無論是出於理想還是出於權力慾,蔣介石放棄了原來身為軍人不應干政的理念,轉而利用軍犬追求執政權力。對於中共來說,以軍人身分控制政權,是典型的軍閥行為。因此中共不斷抨擊蔣,並在權力鬥爭中站到了蔣的對立面。
從此,蔣徹底從過去對中共的欣賞轉為憎惡。
那麼蔣中正和國民黨及上層社會反共的思潮又是如何合流的呢?
上層社會畢竟是少數,在工農運動中當然無法抵擋占人口多數的底層。因此上層社會要對抗工農運動,必須要借助政府的暴力。在當時,大部分新佔領的區域內,能夠借助的就是北伐軍。很多上層人士就開始與北伐軍的軍官聯繫,利用其軍隊幫助鎮壓。
而蔣中正,恰恰是北伐軍總指揮。北伐軍攻佔上海時,江浙財團派出代表與蔣公交涉,希望北伐軍能夠保護上海的秩序,而代價則是提供一大筆軍費。蔣中正同意了。
到這個時候,對於蔣介石,情況是這樣的:

  1. 中共是自己的政敵,同情中共的國民黨左翼也是政敵。
  2. 上層社會普遍恐懼工農運動,並願意支付軍費來進行鎮壓。
  3. 中共以及工農運動對於國民政府繼續北伐已經形成了阻力。
  4. 實際上外國資本也開始對工農運動不滿,反共恰好可以與外國改善關係。
到了這個時候,蔣介石的選擇已經非常簡單了。可以說,對於蔣介石來說,將中共視為敵人並徹底在肉體上消滅,已經是一個必然的選項了。
蔣中正一旦開啟了地獄之門,其他地方的國民黨右翼勢力,即便與蔣介石不是一路人,也會借此開始大規模屠殺。而上層社會中大部分人只會對此拍手稱快。
那麼最後一個問題是,為什麼一些原來的國民黨左翼人士,如汪精衛及其軍隊,也會加入到屠殺中去呢?
這個問題還要歸結到國民革命軍的體系結構。
國民革命軍是一隻舊式軍隊。這種軍隊裡,士兵忠於自己的軍官而不是一個最高文官政府。
而國民革命軍的軍官,大多數資本家或地主家庭出身。因此,上層社會對中共和工農運動的憎惡毫無疑問影響到了國民革命軍。即便是當時的國民黨左翼軍隊也不能免俗。尤其是,軍隊所在地的上層社會狠了以支付軍官一筆財富來換取對工農運動者的鎮壓。而由於軍官直接控制著軍隊,文官政府對軍官很難有嚴重的懲罰(軍官總可以帶著軍隊投靠其他軍閥)。這就導致了即便是國民黨左翼的軍隊也會很高興地參與到清黨屠殺中。
在那個年代,沒有軍隊的政治派別是缺乏最終影響力的。當自己的軍隊的態度都已經無法控制的時候,相關的政客會有什麼樣的轉變也就可想而知了。
一直堅決維持左翼立場的國民黨也是存在的,但是從此以後就再也沒有多少政治影響力了。
412造成了很多的後果。
首先,國民政府解決了一個重要的內部問題。北伐繼續進行。當國民革命軍節節勝利攻入濟南之後,日本為了保護自己在華利益,曾經不得不親自出手,遏止國民革命軍的攻勢。這就是1928年5月的濟南慘案。因為北洋政府已經基本崩潰了,日本就想要更直接地介入中國,但是遭到了北洋軍閥的激烈反抗。1928年6月,張作霖就被日本人炸死了。1928年底,東北易幟。中國名義上實現了統一。
由於國民政府的優勢,各國紛紛開始承認國民政府為中國的主導力量。從1927年到1928年,歐美國家紛紛和國民政府簽訂關稅條約。作為交換,國民政府尊重這些國家的在華利益。那麼,最後一個和國民政府簽訂關稅條約的主要資本主義國家是誰呢?當然是一直支持,影響北洋政府的日本(1930年)。
日本在此過程中損失了大量的利益,以代理人來對中國施壓影響的策略徹底失敗了。這對後來的侵華起到了一定的刺激作用。
再回到國民黨一邊,其內部還遠遠談不上統一。分共/容共問題解決之後,赤裸裸的權力鬥爭就佔據了主導。中原大戰爆發。
由於412中殺光了自己的底層組織,也殺光了走底層路線的國民黨勢力,國民黨從此以後再也沒有能建立起來強有力的基層組織。這導致了國民黨失去了對基層的控制能力,進而導致後來國民政府在政府收入,政府改革,軍隊建設等一系列問題上的困難。也間接導致了國民政府最終在內戰中戰敗。
至於中共,在此之後, 很多人對蘇聯的路線就不再信任了。雖然較為服從共產國際的位於上海的中共中央仍然有很大的影響力,但是以毛澤東為代表的中共本土派逐步崛起。他們開始探索自己的爭鬥道路。到“武裝保衛蘇維埃”的蘇聯派在第五次圍剿戰敗後, 本土派終於成為中共的主導力量。如果沒有這種轉變,中共顯然不可能最終獲勝。正是由於這個過程,中共才從共產國際的中國分部,轉變為一個本土的民族主義政黨。也正是因為這個原因,49年後中共才不會對蘇聯的政策亦步亦趨,也從未加入經互會。所以蘇聯最後的崩潰才沒有對中國[大陸]造成嚴重的經濟打擊。當然,這種堅決的獨立自主的態度也導致了中國[大陸]後來與蘇聯的關係緊張。
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2021.10.26 02:09 Zeus1723 🚩

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2021.10.26 02:09 MasterKnight48902 Oh boy, you know where this will be going...

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2021.10.26 02:09 Zomstrush :(

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2021.10.26 02:09 vinegar-pie You there. Don't miss this oppurtunity to be my friend :D (Seriously you're gonna regret it) :P 23M

Are you that amazing person Ive been looking for? :D
Well this is your chance to come out of the shadows and finally be an integral part of my life xD. I know, I know. You're probably like , will my amazing ness be appreciated?Complimented?. YES it will be and I will show you why :D
Things I like/about me:
1) Video Games (Pc) would like to play stuff with you :)
2) Photography (Mainly phone)
3) I don't watch too many movies or shows, but we could definitely watch stuff together :)
4) I like yoga and fitness and nutrition so we could talk about that!!
5) I am an open book if you give me the chance :D I have a lot of stories to tell
6) I am very caring person, so If we manage to gel I would prolly think of you as a gem I can't lose xD
7) I am very patient and persistent
8) I am a quite happy person and pretty much an optimist
9) I can talk about philosophical stuff too Cause I enjoy it.
I'll be waiting for that special someone :)
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2021.10.26 02:09 YesPleasePie Lonely? Depressed? Join the lonely gang!

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2021.10.26 02:09 IdkHopeICanChange eyo guys what‘s up ? I played AFK Arena for a while like 2 years ago and I got like 900k. Wanna play again but can’t get my acc back :/. Don’t wanna start from the begin so if someone can give me his 2nd acc or something would be really cool. thanks, dm

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2021.10.26 02:09 mikehunt34 What team do you support, and what are your other favorite / least favorite teams?

I'll go first.
Team supported: India
Other favorites:

Least favorite:
What are yours?
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2021.10.26 02:09 yokesh351 Mastercard and Bakkt partner to strengthen cryptocurrency services

Mastercard has announced a partnership with Bakkt to allow its customers to buy, sell and hold cryptocurrencies.

Financial services multinational Mastercard has announced a partnership with Bakkt to enable its customers to buy, sell and hold cryptocurrencies, thereby providing unique and crypto-focused loyalty opportunities, which will also help strengthen the issuance of focused credit and debit cards. in cryptocurrencies.
Thanks to the partnership announced Monday, October 25, Mastercard and Bakkt aspire to promote and facilitate the adoption and delivery of a broad set of cryptocurrency solutions and services by merchants, banks, and FinTechs in the United States. Thus:
Mastercard and Bakkt: An Important Alliance One of the outcomes of the partnership released today is that Bakkt continues to expand Mastercard's crypto partner ecosystem by enabling Crypto-as-a-Service, which:
“Provides quick access to cryptocurrency capabilities. Through the power of the Mastercard network and Bakkt's trusted digital asset platform, Mastercard partners will be able to offer cryptocurrency development solutions. These include the ability for consumers to buy, sell and hold digital assets through custodial portfolios powered by the Bakkt platform and the simplified issuance of branded crypto credit and debit cards. "
The official statement also highlights that Mastercard will integrate cryptocurrencies into its loyalty solutions.
In this way, consumers can earn and spend crypto rewards instead of traditional loyalty points and seamlessly convert their crypto holdings to pay for purchases.
Sherri Haymond, Executive Vice President of Digital Partnerships at Mastercard, said at the time the partnership was announced:
“Mastercard is committed to offering a wide range of payment solutions that provide more choice, value and impact every day. […] Together with Bakkt and grounded in our principles-based approach to innovation, we will not only empower our partners to offer a dynamic mix of digital asset options, but we will also deliver differentiated and relevant consumer experiences. "
For her part, Nancy Gordon, EVP, Loyalty Rewards & Payments at Bakkt, said:
“We are incredibly excited to partner with Mastercard to bring crypto loyalty services to millions of consumers. […] As brands and merchants seek to appeal to younger consumers and their transaction preferences, these new offerings represent a unique opportunity to meet the growing demand for crypto flexibility, payments, and rewards. ”
High Impact Partnership
The statement refers to the Bakkt US Consumer Crypto Survey , which reflected that 48% of respondents reported buying cryptocurrencies in the first half of 2021.
On the other hand, the Mastercard New Payments Index reflected that 77% of millennials declared that they are interested in learning more about cryptocurrency development , and 75% said that they would use cryptocurrency if they understood it better.
The partnership is based on the commitment of both companies to the crypto ecosystem. Bakkt had recently announced a partnership with Google .
Thanks to this, Bakkt users will be able to add their “Bakkt Card” in Google Pay to buy everyday goods and services online, in the store or where Google Pay is accepted.
"
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2021.10.26 02:09 bella8372 Is the bump on my nose visible?

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2021.10.26 02:09 CleanMinds123 How are you doing? Honestly?

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2021.10.26 02:09 sinsemillasmoke Nice Little Doobie for My Pops and I

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2021.10.26 02:09 AnnoyedTeen69 How should I let someone down slowly?

Okay so I'm probably gonna sound like a bit of an asshole but please try and understand.
I've been talking to this girl for a bit over a year now HOWEVER it's been ONLY via text. I've asked her to meet up so so so many times, but she doesn't even want to call. We go to the same school so I though "eh we'd meet there who cares" but it's getting exhausting. I recently found out she ummmm SEXTED a 19 year old guy (She's 14F as am I) and she clearly CLEARLY has plenty of shit to work through. (Her home life sounds like a wreck and she has had some unpleasant interactions with a few older guys I THINK) But she refuses to open up....and I really do want to help her but it's getting really difficult to care about someone who you only talk to via text. I even liked her for a bit and she didn't like me back so maybe subconsciously I'm making excuses to stay away from her but it's getting to the point where when she says certain things I can't help thinking "are you stupid????". Her idea of a relationship is honestly TERRIFYING (she says her perfect relationship is the one in the 'After' series so make of that as you will) and ALOT of her friendships are toxic to say the least. I consider her a good friend and I really do love her but it's getting to the point where I'm almost tired of trying to make some kind of an effort.
I'm not a perfect friend or anything FOR SURE. I 100% have my moments of stupidity so maybe this is one of them but whenever I text her I'm always just constantly worried whether she's harmed herself (she's done it in the past apparently) and I don't know if this is very wrong of me but how do you care about someone who literally refuses to call you? Idk I'm just not quite sure what I should do
submitted by AnnoyedTeen69 to Advice [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 Shikha_99 Top 8 Challenges of the Aviation Industry: The Pre-COVID Era

Top 8 Challenges of the Aviation Industry: The Pre-COVID Era submitted by Shikha_99 to energy [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 lolo338 Dit noemen ze pas lucky man hahahaha afz vester

submitted by lolo338 to QuceeHumor [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 Dogman5031 Whats the best Zkittlez Genetics?

I want to grow zkitllez strain but dont want to skimp on genetics. What's the best one? I dont care about price or if it is autoflower or not?
submitted by Dogman5031 to microgrowery [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 adelsalhi 🚀 $FITR 🚀 💎 The World's first revolutionary marketplace for Health, Fitness, Beauty and Travel in trillion dollar $ mega industry 💎 📲 App & platform released. Team Doxxed 🔔 Sale Just LAUNCHED!

FITR ( Registered Company in Dubai )
After the successful launch of the IOS, Android and Website, it's time for the token $FITR to be released on the MYFITAPE platform 🚀
This will be the first professional business to launch a token that is ready to raise the bar in the BSC market 📈
We are presently conducting an early investor sale (private sale) to allow individuals to get $FITR tokens before we list on the decentralised exchanges (Pancake Swap). The token price will be set at BUSD$0.18 per $FITR Token.💰
FITR unique information: 🔥
7+ Doxxed Team on Website (experienced team)Mega marketing & 5 Year Vision (roadmap)Partnered with Billion Dollar Company (Emirates & Mednet Group & Protect Group)Signed Insurance dealSigned Influencer Marketing dealApp already releasedAn eco-system with multiple features plannedHuge early-on investment opportunities
🧿 What is FITR?
FITR is the first world's health, fitness and wellbeing platform with an already built platform on the BSC. We are a free to join platform that allows you to book around your lifestyle: Fitness (gyms, trainers and coaches), Health (massages, chiropractors, doctors, dentists), Wellbeing (salons, spas, travel, flights, experiences and hotels)
🧿 How much has been raised thus far in private sale?
Just launched! We're opening the early investment to join our journey early on with discounted rates of 70%. We're going big but limited to 500 participants.
🧿 When is the private sale ending?
We will be ending it in in the next few weeks as we in Q4 (November) we will be listing it on a popular DEX.
🧿 Dev doxxed?
100% and legally registered company in Dubai with Company Registration number available on website.
All company members are registered on the website.
🧿 How many of those wallets are going to be locked?
Approximately 80% of public supply, yearly supply drop of 100 Million tokens per year (Maximum of 400 million for Anti-whale system over 4 years) in circulation along with a 20% buy-back programme.
🧿 What is the point of entering the private sale?
Price of the token - mega marketing initiative for token launch and collaboration with influencers in both Crypto and mainstream media. The project for FITR is planning an explosive launch. Getting early on in the private sale ensure the price is fixed, stable and low.Additional ranks and access to new features (early stage investors only).Get the BETA access when FITR is open with new features and new services
🧿 Tokenomics 🧿
Total Supply: 1,000,000,000Private & Public Sale - 45%Liquidity Pool - 15%Loyalty, Rewards and Pool - 15%Research and Development - 2%Team - 4%Advisors 3%Operations 9%Marketing 7%
💎 Learn more about us below 💎
Website 🌐 : https://myfitape.com/fitr
Telegram 💬 : https://t.me/fitrworld
Launch Promo 🎥: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2FBC004SCQE
Buy FITR 💎: https://token.myfitape.com
submitted by adelsalhi to CryptoMars [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 mosquito_lady Malaysian critter feature: Nudibranchs (Sea slugs) of the Indo-Pacific! Nudis are the butterflies of the ocean, but weirder and slower. I love them sooo much.

Malaysian critter feature: Nudibranchs (Sea slugs) of the Indo-Pacific! Nudis are the butterflies of the ocean, but weirder and slower. I love them sooo much. submitted by mosquito_lady to malaysians [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 CactusKarpei Creating A Wrestler Help

When it come's to creating a wrestler,be it yourself or an OC,how do you come up with ideas? I've struggled to come up with some logos and stuff for my own character
Thank you for reading and hopefully responding :)
submitted by CactusKarpei to WWEGames [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 CosmicCrimsonX2 Halloween Week 2 coupon code: PUMPKIN (1 Full Awakening Token, 3 Fort Solgres event dungeon keys, 100 Anvils)

submitted by CosmicCrimsonX2 to SDSGrandCross [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 cookingandcraft Snow covered Solang Valley.

Snow covered Solang Valley. submitted by cookingandcraft to snow [link] [comments]


2021.10.26 02:09 Notba Quest: has anyone actually try this and does it work?

Quest: has anyone actually try this and does it work? submitted by Notba to RushRoyale [link] [comments]


http://katrisestone.ru